Exposure to elevated levels of uranium over a long period can damage your kidneys.

Reverse osmosis (RO) treatment systems are the most common type of treatment used for uranium removal and are very effective.

How does uranium end up on our AZH2O?

1/3 of our water comes through the Grand Canyon from Colorado (1/3 of our water comes from the Colorado River).

The public lands surrounding Grand Canyon National Park contain high concentrations of uranium ore. 

Does the Phoenix water supply contain uranium?

Uranium ppb 30 ND – 2.4.  Yes.

Recently our new client called inquiring how our clarify reverse osmosis service removes uranium and E. coli, pathogens, and coliform.

The other day our new client called and said her doctor asked this:

Have you been sucking on a battery?

Her blood tests showed much uranium in her blood.




Beginning in 1998 the water that flows through the Grand Canyon became important to me (it is 1/3 of the water we use).  We see a population growth trend in the valley with 6,000,000 people (and it will grow to 12,000,000 people in the Phoenix metro and the East Valley area of AZ).   12,000,000 people in Phoenix AZ including the East Valley by 2039.

I wanted to get a close look at the Colorado River water, so I took a trip to the bottom of the Grand Canyon on a Mule.

I even got a certificate explaining that I am now an authentic mule skinner.  I am so proud.

The water that flows through the Grand Canyon is as green as a leaf (this is algae in the water).  When this water reaches our water treatment plants, they add chlorine to kill the algae.  There is so much algae from the Colorado River and the salt river that the chlorine levels are sometimes as high as a swimming pool in our Phoenix metro; East Valley AZ water. 

My relatives and Shirttail relatives had a significant influence in establishing the current water rights and water infrastructure; we feel it is our important job to clean up your water.

These are two solutions to take out the chlorine from the water.

PFAS Whole House Carbon Filtration – Boyett’s Family Water Treatment (azh2o.com) When the Colorado River water and the Salt River water reach your water treatment plants in the Phoenix Metro; East Valley area of AZ – the water treatment plants add fluoride to your water.  Some people do not want any fluoride in their drinking water. 

Here is a solution to remove the fluoride ‘entire home water treatment’.

Fluoride Filter + Granular Activated Filter – Boyett’s Family Water Treatment (azh2o.com)

If I am fortunate to meet with you at your home (as many as 20 clients allow me to stop by between 6-9 PM during the week and Saturdays between 9 AM – 6 PM ‘my visits are usually only 10 – 20 minutes’)

I tell this short water story:

The waterfalls are far away and are held back by the Saguaro Lake dam.   Each water molecule is like a magnet.  As the water runs through the earth it collects mercury, lead, arsenic, hexavalent chromium, and chromium 6.  These are all toxins and harmful to our bodies (they bioaccumulate in your body – they can make you sick).

Here are some options that address heavy metals and chlorine (these products will remove the heavy metals and arsenic in your water ‘for your entire home’).  There is no water waste, no salt, and no electricity.

11870 Chromium Brochure (azh2o.com)

9679 Whole House Mercury (azh2o.com)

6412 Lead Removal (azh2o.com)

We exchange these units every 5 years at no charge.

Based upon a posting on the National Library of Medicine, if the media inside the tanks is not changed it will contaminate the water.


When the Saguaro Lake water and the Grand Canyon Colorado River water arrive at your local water treatment plant; they add fluoride (fluoride is considered a poison and can cause many health problems).

Recently, epidemiological studies have suggested that fluoride is a human developmental neurotoxicant that reduces measures of intelligence in children, placing it into the same category as toxic metals (lead, methylmercury, arsenic) and polychlorinated biphenyls. If true, this assessment would be highly relevant considering the widespread fluoridation of drinking water in the Phoenix metro area and East Valley AZ.

Source for fluoride information:


Does your water have arsenic?

Arsenic in small quantities can cause diabetes and cancer.  Is there arsenic in our Phoenix metro AZ water and our East Valley AZ water?


Phoenix water quality analysis. According to their water safety guidelines, Phoenix’s water violates eight out of the 20 contamination guidelines. The most concerning found were Lead, Nitrate, and Arsenic. Calculated by their stricter guidelines, lead exceeded safe levels by 4x, Nitrate by 16x, and Arsenic by 1,266x.


Problems We Found In Mesa’s Drinking Water


https://www.hydroviv.com › blogs › mesa

The East Valley city’s most recent tap water quality report reported an average arsenic concentration of up to 7.8 parts per billion.

It is important to know how much arsenic is in your drinking water and how you can reduce your exposure. Drinking water with low levels of arsenic over a long time is associated with diabetes and increased risk of cancers of the bladder, lungs, liver, and other organs.


We have a solution for chlorine, heavy metals and arsenic:

11870 Chromium Brochure (azh2o.com)


Fluoride Filter + Granular Activated Filter – Boyett’s Family Water Treatment (azh2o.com)

Is hexavalent chromium (chromium 6) present in our Phoenix Metro and East Valley AZ drinking water?


EWG Tap Water Database | Arizona

Environmental Working Group

https://www.ewg.org › tapwater › state › stab=AZ

Contaminants found in Arizona above health guidelines; Chromium (hexavalent), 94,

Statement from Phoenix Water Services …

Phoenix (.gov)

https://www.phoenix.gov › Documents › Chro…

According to the American Water Works Association, chromium is the 21st most abundant element in the Earth’s crust, and the major source of hexavalent chromium

We may have more hexavalent chromium than made Erin Brockovich sick.

‘Erin Brockovich’ toxin found in metro Phoenix drinking water

The Arizona Republic

https://www.azcentral.com › arizona-water › 2016/09/20

Sep 20, 2016 — Considering that, chromium-6 levels in Phoenix drinking water are on average about 20 times the California goal.

We have a solution to remove the hexavalent chromium and the chromium 6 from your water

11870 Chromium Brochure (azh2o.com)

My grandfather Wilford Hayden served on the Salt River Project board (and significantly contributed to the current East Valley and Phoenix water infrastructure: we are always very careful to point out that we are very obsequies to our water treatment founding fathers and mothers.   We are here to help clean up your water.

My Shirttail relative (who claimed my mother and her 7 siblings as his nieces and nephews) Senator Carl Hayden worked with John F Kennedy to help us claim the water rights to the Central Arizona Project.

Here is how Boyett’s family water treatment can remove the arsenic and hexavalent chromium (chromium 6) from your water:

11870 Chromium Brochure (azh2o.com)

In addition to

Our bone char carbon ingredient that we add; and kdf 55 media will do a great job removing the arsenic from your water and your hexavalent chromium (chromium 6).

Bone Char is especially effective in removing radioactive particles, arsenic, heavy metals, and THM’s from the water as well as fluoride.


KDF 55 and KDF 85 Process Media can remove up to 99% of water-soluble lead, mercury, nickel, chromium, and other dissolved metals.



Chapter 3

Necessity is the mother of invention.

As I left the house where I live, on Sunday to visit Boyett’s family factory, I grabbed a pair of complete sunglasses (I thought).  These glasses are historic to my founding father, but they were missing the arms.

I took them determined to fix them.

As I drove my grandfather’s 1953 Ford I thought; what would he do in a situation like this?

To make these glasses useable I utilized our historic cation resin pens and some string from a water filter.

By utilizing principles of scarcity at every moment this will increase our creative genius and add to the intrigue in life. 

Of scarcity

Signs and symbols help me along my journey.

Suggestions from VIP help too.

At the 53 annual Payson old time fiddle contest my famous Arizona Public Service lineman friend gave me an important life clue.

He informed me that he had not read or listened to the news in several years. 

I contemplated this thought and put it into action.

I was addicted to Google News ‘at every moment’.

I paused from reading so much news and I think my life is calmer and more peaceful.  I found I was worrying about the things that I could not help.

Scarcity principle:

I removed a hindrance and a distraction and replaced it with reading the book of Psalms.  I have

A great place to visit to be near the mighty Superstition Mountain is Goldfield Ghost Town near the town of Apache Junction in Arizona.

I saw this sign there (at the church).

I am especially interested in Honor your mother and father.

These are three members of our dream team (I’ll always tell you this: we have the best technicians in the world ‘because of our process; which begins with our portable exchange tank division – everything starts here).  Their images proliferate because they move fast and know a lot about a lot (they also know a lot about a little). Each one can maneuver and is fleet of foot.

In life and small family business, things don’t always go the way we think.  Our team is interchangeable and adaptable, adjustable and flexible to all circumstances, in all venues, and skills (especially loving people and taking good care of you).  This has given us our 57-year strength.  We continue to foster this essence established by our founding mother and father.

Scarcity principle:

Pay attention to what captures our attention.

This poster caught my eye

It made me look.

This calendar is in the office of this man

Dr. Richard Ray (Mesa, AZ).

I call him our company healer (he helps us keep our backs straight- for 30 years).  In our firm; we maneuver much weight exchanging your rental water treatment equipment.

Many a time I have gone to his office limping ‘neck hurt’ and walked out feeling like a new man.

Scarcity principle:

Necessity is the mother of invention.

Dr. Ray made this healing table (why?  Because it was necessary).  By utilizing his creative genius and great craft and construction skills he likes it more and uses this often.  I have been on this healing table many times and now it has more value to me (because I heard the story).

In 1986 my father took a trip to Texas to drive my grandfather’s 1963 Ford home to me.  I have enjoyed driving this to my ASU college  ‘put my bike in the back’; parked off campus.  I enjoy driving this truck on Sunday to the Boyett’s family factory to keep our facilities clean and the bougainvillea trimmed.

This is the area that holds our salt to perform our portable exchange tank regeneration.  

This is the area where we evacuate the media in our fiberglass tanks to recycle.   Soon this area will go through major renovation.  We feel the work that we are performing to develop recycling methods with our tanks will have a great impact on our industry and help our clients save money.

We always want you to know that



What is the difference between organic and inorganic arsenic?

Long-term exposure to inorganic arsenic, mainly through drinking water and food, can lead to chronic arsenic poisoning. Skin lesions and skin cancer are the most characteristic effects.

Arsenic – World Health Organization (WHO)

We have a solution to remove arsenic heavy metals and chlorine from your water:

11870 Chromium Brochure (azh2o.com)

In addition to

I hope the horse stories never stop.

This is the picture that was placed on my founder’s father’s memorial when we said goodbye.

My founder father loved horses and grew up with horses.  He passed this love of horses to me.  I grew up with horses, and love these beasts today.

Our great insurance agent and friend M L (CEO of Lebarron and Carroll) took us on a horse-riding adventure in the Arizona desert.

M L is a man who came along in my life at the right time and has always been there for us. 

Crash course of water filtration.

Filtration Processes Excerpted from Water Processing: Residential, Commercial, Light Industrial, 3rd Ed. The filtration process is perhaps the most readily understood technique in water treatment, and its results can be observed.  The basic principles of filtration/separation have been working for eons in our environment.  As part of the hydrologic cycle, some filtration takes place as water seeps and percolates down through layers of earth.  By the time the water has reached the underground aquifer, it is free of any particulate and some of its adsorbed gasses… Filtration, as such, involves the process or process of separating suspended matter from a liquid. One of the most common methods of filtration consists of passing water through a bed (column) of granular medium or through various porous media, such as coated paper, membranes, and other special fabrics, to remove undissolved suspended particulates. When these particles result in cloudiness and discoloration, this condition is referred to as “turbidity.” Such particulates may be finely divided silt, sand, solid organic matter, precipitated iron, bacteria, or algae, which may be present in both surface or well water sources. Well-designed tank-type media filters are capable of removing these suspended solids from water down to about 10.0 micron size. Particles smaller than 10 microns can be destabilized and then agglomerated together into larger and filterable flocs with the aid of coagulants such as aluminum sulfate (alum). Effective coagulation, mixing, and flocculation prior to media filtration can remove particles down to one micron in size. In more refined filtration/separation techniques that are used to remove particles not visible to the naked eye

than 20 microns), special membrane-type media in cartridge-style filters are employed. Two processes are used to remove these extremely fine nonionized species in assort of the “screening out” technique.  The first microfiltration involves the removal of species in the 0.06-to-2.00-micron range. This process is the ultrafiltration membrane method, which is capable of removing particulate matter in the 0.025 to 0.200 micron range and also rejects dissolved macromolecules above the 1,000 molecular weight (MW) cutoff.  (This chapter does not cover micro-or ultrafiltration.  See Water Filtration for Point-of-Use Application, by the Water Quality Association, Lisle, Illinois, 1989.) In its larger technical sense, filtration processes do involve a wide variety of equipment, mechanics, chemicals, devices, and an array of media products to “separate “particulates or molecules from fluids. At large industrial, municipal, and specialized commercial water treatment facilities, one or more of the following water rectification modes may be used. •Simple strainers and sieves •Granularmedia-type gravity, pressure, or vacuum filters •Centrifugation •Cartridge-type filters •Precoat filters •Chemical—coagulation/precipitation •Filter  presses •Membrane technology… Filtration Processes Excerpted from Water Processing: Residential, Commercial, Light Industrial, 3rdEd. WQA Educational Kit 13 Filtration Processes continued from page12 2011 THE MECHANICS OF FILTRATION Home and business filters, for the most part, follow the basic principles of large commercial filtration systems and fall into two broad categories: surface filters and depth filters. Essentially, filters or by electrostatic attraction of undissolved particles in water to certain types of filter media. Surface (screen) filtration can be described as a “straining” technique, somewhat akin to the sifting of flour in baking, where a series of holes or perforations (all the same size) in a flat metal or plastic sheeting can remove particulate from a liquid. This series of surface holes holds back solid particles based on size, allowing those of smaller diameter to pass through. 3 In this “screening out” process, however,

a layer usually will build upon the surface filter and become a secondary filter surface. This surface layer then does the actual filtering—and in so doing, establishes a type of “depth filter” element upon the surface filter itself. The problem with surface filtering in home and business situations is that such filters clog easily, much like the debris of ten observed at the grating of a stormwater catch basin. Surface filters can be either strainers with uniform holes or perforations in a rigid material, or certain membranes with very uniform, tiny openings. Examples of surface filters include Y-strainers, faucet aerator screens, sump strainers, and basket hair catchers in swimming pool filter systems. Depth filters (or deep-bed filters), on the other hand, are the most common design for domestic purposes. The tank-type filters contain loose media,   the water or  .In addition, some media, such as granulated  , are highly porous particles, offering microfiltration of some micro organic molecules. With the use of more than one layer of medium in filters, the void spaces can be varied even further. Depth filtration is described as “water [liquid] flowing through a mass filter medium or series of media, following a torturous pathway, with many entrapments” – usually of successively decreasing void spaces through the depth of the filtering bed.  In deep-bed depth filters, particulate matter is first deposited in the upper inch or two of the bed.  Once the layer of particulate is deposited, additional particles can flow through the irregular maze of channels or paths to be entrapped in locations deeper in the media bed.  Examples of deep-bed depth filters include anthracite, sand, and garnet mixed media systems. Depth filtration also includes those string-wound and special fabrics 2) used as part of cartridge-style filter units. Some undissolved particulates in water carry a very slight charge; thus in certain cases, these particles are separated by electrostatic attraction to the filter medium itself. TURBIDITY Turbidity, or cloudiness, in water, is caused by very small particles that remain suspended and tend to “float” because of the very

low density.  The standard analysis measurement for turbidity is reported in Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU), which have superseded the Jackson Turbidity Units (JTU)of measurement formerly used in water analysis. Turbidity in potable water cannot exceed 0.5NTU, according to current US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Primary Drinking Water Standards. A reading of 5.0NTU triggers a mandatory “boil water” alert in public water systems. Temporary cloudiness in water, such as may be noticed in a freshly drawn glass,  Is often caused by excess air.  This cloudiness disappears rapidly upon standing.  Another cause of cloudiness in a glass of drawn hot water can be extremely fine precipitants created during the heating; this condition generally clears itself quickly.  Still, another form of cloudiness in water may be the rare case of methane gas (CH4), common in marsh water sources. Some turbidity (both organic and inorganic in nature) in surface water will settle out when the water is allowed to stand. On the other hand, a portion of this material may be present as finely divided, colloidal matter that cannot be removed by settling. In general, most turbidity in residential water treatment can be removed by passing the water through a bed (tank) of granular-type media in a sediment filter. The finer the particle size of a given filter media, the greater the filter’s ability to remove the particulate. Some turbidity and color in water are composed of such small particles that they slip right through the conventional filter medium. In commercial applications, the removal of these extra-fine species usually requires the help of a chemical feed application. Often, a chemical such as alum (aluminum sulfate) is added in low dosages to the stream of water to neutralize the electrical charge or to destabilize the particles, thereby causing them to adhere to one another and, in turn, form larger particles. These particles are then removed first by settling, and then filtration. In the home and on the farm where turbidity and sediment are encountered, a

more easily maintained and automatic system is needed. The operation of chemical feed devices is generally more than the average homeowner or businessperson wants to be bothered with.  Very often, a small automatic filter can do the task. Most domestic filters are either porous media-type whole-house units or disposable cartridge filters at one or two faucets for drinking water, depending on the amount and type of particulate to be removed. Where softening, demineralization, or reverse osmosis is involved, filtering would be the first (or pretreatment) steps to a clear stream of water would be feeding these subsequent treatment modes.

Filtration Processes


Filtration is a process that removes particles from suspension in water. Removal takes place by a number of mechanisms that include straining, flocculation, sedimentation, and surface capture. Filters can be categorized by the main method of capture, i.e. exclusion of particles at the surface of the filter media i.e. straining, or deposition within the media i.e. in-depth filtration.

Strainers generally consist of a simple thin physical barrier made from metal or plastic. In water treatment, they tend to be used at the inlet of the treatment system to exclude large objects (e.g. leaves, fish, and coarse detritus). These may be manually or mechanically scraped bar screens. The spacing between the bars ranges from 1 to 10 cm. Intake screens can have much smaller spacing created by closely spaced plates or even fine metal fabric. The latter are usually intended to remove fine silt and especially algae and are referred to as microstrainers.

Filters, as commonly understood in water treatment generally consist of a medium within which it is intended most of the particles in the water will be captured. Such filters might be manufactured as disposable cartridge filters, which can be suitable for domestic (i.e. point-of-use treatment) and small-scale industrial applications. Larger forms of cartridge filters exist which can be cleaned. One version is precoated filtration in which a porous support surface is given a sacrificial coating of diatomaceous earth, or other suitable material, each time the filter has been cleaned. Additionally, a small amount of the diatomaceous earth is applied continuously during filtration. However, in most cases, filters used in municipal water treatment contain sand or another appropriate granular material (e.g. anthracite, crushed glass or other ceramic material, or another relatively inert mineral) as the filter medium. Filtration using such filters is often referred to as in-depth granular media filtration.

Granular media filters are used in either of two distinct ways which are commonly called slow-sand filtration and rapid gravity or pressure filtration. When the filters are used as the final means of particle removal from the water, then the filters may need to be preceded by another stage of solid-liquid separation (clarification) such as sedimentation (Sedimentation Processes), dissolved-air flotation  (Flotation Processes) or possibly a preliminary stage of filtration.

Other processes take place in vessels similar to those used for granular media filtration, and in some respects, the processes do have similarities with filtration but filtration is not their sole or primary purpose. Therefore, such processes are not considered further in this article. Examples include vessels filled with granular activated carbon for the removal of dissolved organic substances and vessels filled with ion exchange resin for the removal of inorganic and organic ions. There are applications of filters that whilst filtration (removal of particles) does take place a secondary process is intended to also occur, e.g. iron and manganese removal, and arsenic removal.


There is a vast variety of strainers with respect to how the straining is carried out, with and by what (Purchas, 1971). The straining part might be made of metal or other inert material e.g. plastic, cotton or a ceramic. If metal, it could be simply a perforated sheet, a grid of rods, a stack of discs or woven wire. If plastic, it could be a grid, woven or simply a fused felt. In cartridge filters the usually disposable cartridge might simply consist of a porous and non-compressible material or be cord wound on a cylindrical support. Cartridge filters find application generally in small-scale applications such as for domestic point-of-use water treatment.

Only a few types of strainers are likely to find application in municipal water treatment. Some require manual cleaning others are cleaned mechanically and even automatically when the pressure drop across them reaches a specific value. A water treatment works might have a simple bar strainer at its inlet to keep out logs, large fish, and swimming animals. Next there might be a fine strainer with its aperture small enough to exclude all but the smallest of fish, leaves, clumps of algae etc . Generally, this strainer would have to be automatically cleaned. Where algae might be a distinct problem then the bar strainer might have closely spaced bars and be automatically cleaned followed by a microstrainer.

One particular type of mechanical strainer has found limited application in smaller municipal water treatment works. The straining medium is a bundle of fibres. In filtration mode the bundle is twisted tight. In the wash mode the bundle is untwisted and the trapped detritus removed by reversing the flow of water.

Precoat Filters

In precoat filtration a thin layer of an inert medium is laid down on a support structure to provide a porous straining surface. The precoat layer might be created with loose fibres or powders (Purchas, 1971). A small quantity of the precoat or other similar material might be added continuously during filtration such that some in-depth filtration also then takes place. When resistance to flow becomes too great then the accumulated detritus and inert medium are discharged and the cycle is repeated. In most instances, the precoat material is used just once and is not recovered and recycled.

Precoat filtration is unlikely to be used in conjunction with coagulation and therefore its application in municipal water treatment is very limited.

Slow Sand Filters

In slow sand filtration, the rate of filtration is intentionally slow with the use of sand that is smaller than sand used in rapid sand filters so that particles are not driven far into the bed of sand held within the filter shell. The principal mechanism taking place in slow sand filters is an accumulation of a layer of debris on the surface of the filter (straining) and capture within about the top 20 cm of the sand. This debris is allowed to develop biological activity which contributes to the treatment of the water passing through it. This biologically active layer is often called the ‘schmutzdecke’. Because the filtration rate is relatively slow the resistance to flow through slow sand filters develops slowly and may take up to 3 months before it becomes unacceptable. Because the filtration rate is slow a large area for filtration is needed. Consequently, the large filters are cleaned by removing the schmutzdecke with about 5 cm of sand usually by mechanical means. Eventually, the depth of sand remaining becomes too shallow and the remaining sand is removed, cleaned, and replaced with additional clean sand back to the original starting depth.

Slow sand filtration was the main method of filtration of potable water before rapid sand filtration was developed. Although it has a large footprint, many slow sand filters are still used. Developments to make them more cost-effective have included:

  • Sand removal, washing and replacement have been mechanized as much as possible.
  • The need for sand removal has been made as predictable as possible so that the equipment and labour is efficiently utilized.
  • Filtration rates have been increased as much as possible to improve the economics and contribute to the predictability of the need for sand removal.
  • Pre-treatment, including raw water storage and management, is applied to reduce the impact of solids in suspension and contribute to predictability.
  • Granular activated carbon has been used in some filters to replace the lower part of the sand to help with the removal of pesticides, taste and odor, and other trace organic substances that the biological mechanism does not deal with effectively.

There are two important requirements for slow sand filters to function properly. Firstly, the water entering the filters must not contain any disinfectant or other chemical that might interrupt the biological activity of the schmutzdecke. Secondly, if pre-treatment is carried out with coagulation then most of the resulting floc particles must be removed as part of the pre-treatment, otherwise the floc will accelerate the rate at which resistance to flow through the filter develops.

Rapid Gravity and Pressure Filters

In-depth granular media filtration can be carried out under gravity (rapid gravity filtration) or pressure (pressure filtration). The basic mechanisms of particle removal are fundamentally the same in both gravity and pressure modes. The principal differences between the two modes are likely to be hydraulic, notably the distribution of flow between filters and control of flow through individual filters. The filter media is usually sand, but other relatively inert materials can be used, but the choice depends on costs and what other objectives there might be. In some cases, part of the sand might be replaced with anthracite. The lower density of the anthracite allows a larger grain size to be used such that after backwash the larger anthracite sits on top of the smaller sand. In this

way filtration takes place through first a larger and then a smaller media to help make better use of filter bed depth. 

The principal mechanism of in-depth filtration is surface capture. The area of media available for surface capture depends on both media depth and size. Depth and size also govern the space available for storage of captured detritus. The grain shape of the filter media also affects capture and storage, in that angular particles are preferable to rounded particles.  The choice of size has to take account of how quickly the medium might become blocked by captured detritus and the ease with which it can be backwashed. Regardless of the choice of media material, size tends to be limited to the range 0.5 to 2.0 mm. The greatest application of in-depth filtration in municipal water treatment is after coagulation, perhaps also with prior clarification. The choice of coagulation chemistry, its application, and any clarification, govern the nature and quantity of the particles to be removed by the filtration, which in turn affect the choice of filter media, depth, and filtration rate.

In potable water treatment, in-depth filtration is often the last, and sometimes the only, physical barrier to particles. Therefore the performance reliability of the filters is important in ensuring the quality of the water on completion of treatment complies with the standards. The standards defined by the relevant regulations have become substantially more rigorous as they have developed over the past 50 years. The reliability of the exclusion of Cryptosporidium oocysts has been of particular concern.

The bed of granular filter media is cleaned by applying backwash. This generally involves: draining down the water until its upper surface is at about the same level as the top of the media, loosening the bed with air (air scour), applying water upwash at a rate great enough to just fluidize the functional part of the bed of filter media, allow a short interval for the media to settle, and starting to refill the filter with water from above the bed whilst opening the outlet so that filtration starts slowly. A more rigorous backwash can be achieved if the water upwash is started at a reduced rate whilst the air scour is occurring (combined air-water wash). Older filter installations sometimes have other features like mechanical rakes or surface flush that operate during upwash. The viscosity of water depends on water temperature. Therefore, the rate of upwash must take account of water temperature to ensure the filter media is fluidized.

It is usual to have at least four filters so that the filtration can continue whilst one filter is backwashed. Large treatment works have many more than four in a group and possibly two or more independent groups of filters.

Problems with operating in-depth filters include:

  • Loss of media during backwash,
  • Ineffective backwashing resulting in mud-binding of the media and its associated symptoms.
  • Short filter runs due to either rapid rate of headloss or early breakthrough of particles.

These are usually indicators of the likes of incorrect upwash rate, problems with the underdrain system, excessive dosing of polyelectrolyte, presence of filter-blocking algae, inappropriate choice of either or both filter media size and depth, or simply either or both inadequate prior coagulation and clarification. Trouble-shooting should also check to what extent the distribution of flow between filters in a bank or group is equitable or not.

Novel Forms of Granular Media Filters

There are several relatively novel forms of granular media filters. Each is a ‘horse for a course’ having its specific set of advantages and disadvantages and therefore relative appropriateness for certain applications.

Upflow filters

In normal in-depth granular media filtration, the flow of water is down through the filter bed, except during backwashing. Upflow of water during filtration is possible; it offers an advantage but also poses problems. With backwashing of the filter media, normally the media is encouraged to stratify with the largest and densest material towards the bottom of the filter bed and the smallest and lightest towards the top. This means that in downward filtration, the filtration is progressively through increasingly larger media unless the media is tightly graded before installation. This contradicts the ideal bed geometry of filtration through progressively smaller media. It follows that one way of avoiding this situation is to filter upwards. Upward filtration allows the capacity of the media to collect and store solids to be exploited better. However, as the filter bed accumulates deposits and the resistance to flow through it increases the bed progressively becomes more likely to be hydraulically disrupted. Two approaches have been used to restrict this hydraulic disruption. The Immedium filter uses a simple metal grid about 15 cm below the top of the bed to help keep the bed compacted. The Biflow filter applies downflow filtration to the top of the bed to keep the lower part with upflow filtration compacted.

A reservation for the use of upflow filters as the final stage of solids removal in potable water treatment is that backwash flow is in the same direction as filtration. Another reservation is that filter breakthroughs can happen suddenly. Consequently, upflow filters are more likely to be found in applications where protection of treated water quality does not have to be as rigorous as required for potable water treatment, although they might be appropriate to use as a clarification stage prior to normal in-depth filtration.

a.       Immedium filters The Immedium filter was developed in the Netherlands in the 1960s.  The key feature is the use of a simple metal grid across the filter bed about 15 cm below the top of the sand. The grid delays the onset of the breakthrough of particles in the water. The grid helps to maintain

compaction of the sand and delays the start of localised penetration of flow as the water finds paths of least resistance through the sand. A point is reached when the flow through such a low resistance path is too great for particles to be removed and is great enough to fluidize the sand in the upper part of the flow path. This can be observed at the upper surface of the bed by the appearance of ‘blow holes’.

b.      Biflow filters

The Biflow filter was developed as an alternative to the Immedium filter.  As the name implies, the flow for filtration is in two directions. The larger proportion of flow is upwards from the base of the filter bed, whilst the smaller proportion is downwards from the top of the filter bed. The two flows meet a short way down the bed where there is an outlet grid across the bed. When the filter needs washing both flows are stopped and air scour is applied for a few minutes before water upwash is carried out to wash out the detritus. Combined air and water upwash can be carried out only if the filter has been designed for this.

c.       Buoyant media filters

Whilst in Immedium and Biflow filters the filter sand is kept compacted, in buoyant media filters the media is chosen to be buoyant and is retained in the filter by a straining mesh above the media. The media is selected to have a low density and accordingly is usually plastic. During the filtration mode the media is in a compacted state under the retaining mesh. When the media needs to be washed to clean out the captured detritus, the upflow rate is reduced to release the compaction and air is bubbled up through the bed. Buoyant media filters have been used in water treatment as a clarification stage before normal filtration

d.      Moving bed filters

All the granular media filters described above have flow-through for filtration stopped whilst they are backwashed. In a moving bed filter, the filter media is constantly moving so that filtration is not interrupted for the sand to be backwashed. The sand in the filtration zone slowly moves downward due to its own weight against the upflow of the water being filtered. In the conical base of the filter, the sand is hydraulically carried into a vertical tube up through the centre of the filter bed. As the sand is carried up through the tube the filtered deposits are released. At the top of the tube above the filter bed, the sand settles out from the wash water and feeds back to the top of the filter bed whilst the dirty wash water is kept separate from the filtered water emerging from the top of the filter.  In order that the proportion of water lost in the wash stream is kept small, moving bed units should be operated close to design capacity.

Cell filters

There is a maximum size to which a normal filter can be built if the whole of the filter bed is to be backwashed at the same time. If the filter bed can be backwashed in sections then the filter shell can be larger. A bed can be backwashed in sections by having the filter bed divided by walls from the filter floor to just above the bed so that a hood can be placed over the section to be backwashed. The hood is mounted on a gantry that runs on rails along the top of the main side walls of the filter. This approach results in reduced civil engineering costs but greater mechanical engineering costs, compared to a larger number of filters of equivalent total filtration area. The operational reliability of a cell filter depends much on the functioning of the gantry and hood system and how effectively the hood seals with the walls of a cell.

Automatic backwash filters

As deposits accumulate in a filter bed the resistance to flow through the bed increases.  Flow can be kept constant by having an outlet valve that is progressively opened and provides less resistance to flow through it to compensate for the increased resistance to flow through the bed. In this way, the level (head) of water above the media remains relatively constant. Alternatively, the flow to the filter is kept constant and the flow through the filter remains relatively constant with the level of water above the bed increasing. If the filter is contained in a deep shell then the increasing level of water can be used to prime a siphon. When the level reaches a predetermined level the siphon is activated and is used to draw water up through the filter to cause backwash. A risk is that the upwash rate of water may be inadequate for effective backwashing. However, the design lends itself to package plants and situations where the quality and quantity of particles to be removed remain relatively constant.  The design is unlikely to be suitable for potable water treatment.

Horizontal and radial filters

a.       Horizontal filters

Instead of the flow of water being up or down through a filter bed, it can be horizontally across the bed. If the filter bed is contained in a rectangular tank then the filtration rate remains constant along the length (inlet to outlet) of the filter. The filter can be backwashed hydraulically as required.  It would be necessary for the main filter material to be as uniform in size as possible so that there is not a distinct bias through the depth due to stratification of the media by size by the backwashing, or the backwash is arranged to keep the media mixed. A horizontal filter could be split into two or more sections each with a different size media, with a vertical mesh between each to keep the different size media separated. The backwash of each section would need to take account of this.

Horizontal filters have been used filled with gravel (pebbles) of selected sizes in third-world situations for use as clarifiers. Because the size of the gravel precludes normal backwashing, the filters are routinely cleaned by draining and hosing and occasionally by removing the gravel for washing.

b.      Radial filters

A radial filter is a horizontal filter but with increasing width of filter bed in the direction of flow. The ultimate shape of the filter bed is annular in cross-section with flow from the centre to the periphery. The rate of filtration decreases as the water progresses through the filter media so allowing progressively more efficient removal of particles.

Membrane Filters

Historically cloth has been used to filter water. In microstraining the water is filtered through fabric made from finely woven wire. In both these cases the cloth or fabric is a kind of membrane, albeit a coarse one. Modern technology allows the manufacture of membranes from synthetic materials, to be less than about 1mm thick and be semi-permeable.  Being semi-permeable means that the membrane is selective in what submicron-size particles can and cannot pass through it that is in the feed stream. During operation, permeable components in the water pass through the membrane with the water whilst impermeable submicron-size components are retained on the feed side. Consequently, the product stream is relatively free of impermeable components and the waste stream is rich in impermeable components. Flow of water through such a semi-permeable membrane is achieved by pressure, usually produced by pumping.

There are four categories of membranes loosely defined by the types of materials rejected, operating pressure, and nominal pore size. The categorization of pore size is approximate since, for example, a high-end UF membrane can have similar permeability to a low-end NF membrane:

  • Microfiltration (MF)  – approx 0.1 µm pores: impermeable to particles, algae, animalcules and bacteria
  • Ultrafiltration (UF) – approx 0.01 µm pores: impermeable to small colloids and viruses
  • Nanofiltration (NF) – approx 0.001 µm pores: impermeable to dissolved organic matter (DOM) and divalent ions
  • Reverse osmosis (RO) – effectively non-porous: impermeable to monovalent ions

The predominant mechanism in MF and UF is straining, or simple size exclusion. In NF and RO separation of dissolved species involves mass transfer, a process of diffusion that depends on concentration, pressure and rate of flow through the membrane (flux).  Consequently, membrane filtration usually refers to MF and UF but not NF and RO, whilst NF is usually considered to be a form of RO.

The thickness of membranes means that they have to be formatted in a way that provides structural strength, so they will not collapse because of the pressure difference across them, provide a large area for filtration but are compact and can be cleaned effectively. They are generally structured as thin tubes (hollow fibres) or as a coiled sheet. A coil is a sandwich of the semi-permeable membrane, a separating mesh, a thin sheet of impermeable material and a second layer of thin mesh. The layers of mesh provide the channels for flow to the inlet and from the outlet side of the membrane.

It is usual to include a preliminary stage of treatment before membrane filtration to protect the membrane from being fouled too rapidly by excluded material, although there are also ways to operate membrane filters to slow the rate of fouling of the membrane before having to apply a cleaning process. The routine, and frequent, cleaning process is flushing to remove the accumulated detritus on the feed side. However, over time there is a slow loss in membrane performance that can only be recovered by chemical cleaning.

Membrane filtration (MF, UF and low end NF) have become relatively common in potable water treatment, such as for removal of colour from otherwise relatively good quality water so avoiding complexities associated with coagulation, and for reliable exclusion of Cryptosporidium.


Tobiason J.E., Cleasby J.L.,Logsdon G.S. and O’Melia C.R. (2010) Granular Media Filtration, Chapt.10 in Water Quality & Treatment, 6th Edtn., AWWA & McGrawHill.

MWH (2005) Water Treatment Principles and Design (2nd Edtn.), Wiley

Purchas D.B. (1971) Industrial Filtration of Liquids (2nd Edtn), Leonard Hill, UK

Stuetz R. (2009) Principles of Water and Wastewater Treatment Processes, IWA

Related Publications

Hexavalent Chromium Removal Using Anion Exchange and Reduction With Coagulation and Filtration – M McGuire, N Blute, G Qin, P Kavounas, D Froelich, L Fong 
Publication Date: Apr 2008 – ISBN – 9781843396208





national library of medicine

One of our foundation principles is indeed recycling media tanks.  This helps keep our rates low and also helps our environment.  In many cases, the tanks we utilize will be thrown away by another company.  We still see useful life in this equipment (we evacuate the media sanitize them and refill them with fresh media).   This is the area where this all takes place

Within a period this area will be transformed.  We feel the development of our new process will help lead our industry.  We are developing processes to dump the used media into super sacks.  This way will be more efficient and preserve our human resources.  The lifting mechanism is made of aluminum.  This is how it looks in a trailer. 

This is a big deal.  We feel all the work we are developing this will lead our industry and help many people in Arizona to have affordable, delicious, convenient and plentiful water – fast. 

These images show some of the details that is going into developing this cutting-edge water treatment process and design improvement.

I travel in the Phoenix metro and East Valley to meet with you (I am fortunate to meet with about 20 people each week in the evenings or Saturdays) and I spend much time greeting the animals that inhabit these homes.  We love all creatures great and small.  I am humbled to see the great places these creatures hold in your lives. Bossy comes to see us each day.  He is our stray cat who walked into our office like he owned the place.

Some random pictures

Julio working on his Lexus at our factory (love the hair – I’m jealous a little).

When my founder father passed the printer printed so many of his memorials.  In my path of travel, I leave these for people to see what a great founder father he was (I sometimes place them in a book where I travel; hoping someone will see it ’.  I am so proud to be his son.  I seek to honor him here (this is what drives my passion in our rental water treatment industry to give you the best tasting and safe water – for a small monthly investment).  My message is: let’s be like him: hard-working, educated, and industrious (and love many people; look for ways to treat many people’s water).  It’s a little different I know (my spectacular founder parents always encouraged the kids to stand out from the crowd and honor those who got us here).  I seek to do that here.

Julio is bringing great honor to some historic artifacts (a Rayne Water Conditioning pocket protector).

I have spent most of my life representing Rayne Water Conditioning of Phoenix metro and the East Valley.  My family has represented Rayne Water Conditioning with great distinction and honor for over 56 years.  We want to let all the current and future Rayne Water Conditioning clients know that we will be here for you if you need our help for service.  We are very qualified to answer any questions you have about Rayne Water Conditioning Phoenix metro, East Valley AZ.   My family is very qualified to fix any Rayne Water Conditioning water softeners, and whole house water conditioning units and we are qualified to work on any Rayne Water Conditioning reverse osmosis units.

All of our advertising is natural and organic (path of travel).   We reward our clients for performing our advertising work (over 57 years – we have found this works the best).  This link explains how:

Our portable exchange tank process drives our whole company (it makes us who we are – the people and the trucks).  It is a very difficult business to operate.   Only two companies are operating this method of soft water delivery in the Phoenix area.  We are the only company that operates this in the East Valley Arizona area.

Ali said to me: let’s paint our phone number and our name on the tanks so people can find us.

I said: I’d like to help you.

Together we are many.

Hayden Road was named after my mother’s family.   That is how I got my name



new topic

why does my water softener need replaced every 5 years?

The cation resin beads will disintegrate because of all the chlorine in our home water.

If this material is not proactively changed every 5 years – a catastrophe will ensue.   We perform this – every 5 year change out at no charge.

New Topic

Why should my RO tank be sanitized for one hour every year (the best way is for this tank to be sanitized at a factory and swapped every year)?

We don’t know of a company that will stay at your home for one hour to sanitize your RO tank. 

One hour to sanitize your RO tank (with non scented bleach) is necessary in order to properly sanitize your RO tank (based upon water tests from Legend Lab, Phx AZ). After 12 months in the RO tank the hetertrophic bacteria in the water becomes hight.

Heterotrophic plate count (HPC) is a procedure for estimating the number of live heterotrophic bacteria in water12It is also known as the standard plate count1The HPC test can be used to measure the overall bacteriological quality of drinking water in public, semi-public and private water systems2.

Learn more:

We sanitize your tank at our factory and switch your reverse osmosis tank out each year.

120123 and then we celebrate

At our 011824 safety meeting Boyett’s family water treatment recognized Sebastian for his 10 years of hard work here.

I was fortunate to say these words at the meeting.

10 years ago we were fortunate to have a young man begin his work here as a regeneration technician.   As new opportunities developed Sebastian continued to learn new skills and hone his craft.  I feel that Sebastian is one of the finest in our industry.  As I continue to watch Sebastian work, I am always awed at how much Sebastian accomplishes each day.   Sebastian, I am so impressed with your desire to learn and improve every day.   This is what makes a 57-year-old business happen.  This is what makes America strong. 

Sebastian, you make my heart happy when I see you in the morning with a smile and a smile at the end of the day.   This gives me great hope and I am taking notes because this is how I want to work.

When I asked Sebastian what award he wanted to celebrate his 10th anniversary – he looked up at my hat and said – Hayden ‘I’d like a hat like yours’.  I was a little surprised and I said – you want the stickers too, and he said no.    Sebastian, I put the sticker inside your hat. 

Does anybody have any great stories about this great man?

Here is our YouTube link to see what people are saying about this great Boyett’s family water technician. .

A person happened to me.

In 2009 an important neighbor and vendor stomped into our office demanding alkaline water. 

By changing her drinking water to alkaline water; she stopped limping (her hips were bothering her) and began running marathons and triathlons. 

Troy invented our alkalinity reverse osmosis unit. 

We learned that we can add an empty filter canister filled with calcite to raise the pH of our reverse osmosis water.  Now we add some magnesium oxide to this empty filter canister and we can now provide you with: +Mg+pH+ro+h2o:

50% of us are low on magnesium.  If you drink 60 ounces of our water each day; this may help to provide 10% of your daily needed magnesium nutrition.

We can provide you with the best technicians in the world because of our training model. 

It all begins with this tank:

These tanks are filled with cation resin beads.  This delivered product is called : Boyett’s family portable exchange soft water service.

The regeneration occurs at our factory.

(Insert picture of Route Truck)

The trucks that transport these portable exchange soft water tanks are unique and custom.   This person who happened upon me also invented an important contraption to make our portable exchange tank delivery safer. 

These tanks vary in height about 1.25”.  The metal flap that she developed allows extra protection when fitting the tank in place (it takes up the gap).

The trucks that perform your initial installation are all custom-made and designed. 

The company she founded and operates today (they build all our trucks) is called Coach Works Autobody located in Mesa, Arizona. 

The other great contribution MR has made to our lives is helping us begin a musical movement.

In 2009 MR took the courage to begin learning the fiddle.  She is the leader of our Fast Track Music in Mesa, AZ.   MR is the cofounder of Fast Track Music (we hope it becomes a worldwide movement).  The long name is Fast Track Musical Instrument and Voice Utilization

program (if you don’t use it – you lose it. To use it – you have to have it).

Each day we are looking for people who have a dream to play a musical instrument (or sing).  We provide the instrument free of charge and we sponsor a couple of lessons in the hope they will continue like we do (every day this music process is an important thing in our lives).

A person happened to me, and I am so grateful.

This is a picture that Ben G brought back to the office to show us.  He takes such great pride in his work he returns to brag about the good job he has performed.

We have great people.

We have great truck manufacturers that help us have the best fleet in the water business (this is our intention).

Picture of Coach Works Autobody and Paint (Mesa, AZ).

Because of this great family-owned company; we can set up and maintain your water equipment efficiently and affordably.

I am so grateful to my founder’s parents for leaving us a thing that we can work really hard every day and try to make it better. Nothing will happen here without the loyalty and trust of our important clients.

 I feel because of the high ethics and persistence that my parents invested in this company:

I am fortunate to work in a company that has the best technicians in the industry and the best fleet of trucks to provide you with great service at an affordable price. 

Thanks for investing your time with us today.

Respectfully, Hayden Boyett

Here is an article about our history: