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Questions and Answers about soft water 07.02.13

Q: My water softener (in my home or business) is causing low water pressure – what can I do?

A: Have your cation resin checked and possibly replaced ‘or replenished’ every 5 years (depending on influent water and usage; and condition of the cation resin).   Here is a video/ slide show which features a cation resin inspection project ( Watch the video ) In the Phoenix metro area of Arizona; we have determined the tipping point for cation resin ‘to necessitate a change’ is approximately 5 years.

Q: How can a water softener cause low pressure in my house?

A: The cation resin beads can fracture and clog the lower collector (which is the attachment connected to the distributor tube ‘and prevents the cation resin beads from flowing into your home or business’).

Answer #2:

Another occurrence which can take place to cause low pressure is when the lower collector breaks (the lower collector is attached to the bottom of the distributor tube).   This will clog the fixtures and water using appliances. This can be very tumultuous and very expensive. We have heard a story about a cation resin evacuation that caused $5,000.00 in damage.

Here is some more information regarding the cation resin evacuating into the home:

Here are two examples of lower collectors which have broken:

Lower Collector on the water softener

September of 2011 our customer ( account #135970) experienced the cation resin flowing into their house when the lower collector broke. This broken lower collector is displayed in the picture above. Troy and Marco responded to this problem. They traveled to this home and cleaned out the cation resin.

Now here is the rest of the story:

Because this problem exists – our company invented a resin screen (this device is shown below)

 

Resin Screen

We have prepared this bypass valve with a metal screen inside. The bypass valve is placed between the water softener (cation resin tank) and the customer’s home plumbing.   This special bypass valve will prevent the cation resin from escaping into the home if the lower collector breaks.

Our customer ( account #135970 ‘in the above example’) has chosen to rent the water softener for $30.00/mo plus tax (there is a one -time connection fee of $75.00).

This bypass valve with a metal screen inside is a world-wide invention created by our company -Boyett’s Family Water Conditioning. No other company in the world has come up with a simple solution for this serious industry problem (lower collector breaking and cation resin evacuating into your home or business). We are very proud to proffer this up to you. We think this is going to save our clients thousands of dollars over time (by preventing loss and destruction). This invention was created by listening to a customer.  Our customer said, “what are folks doing about this cation resin evacuation problem?” We took immediate action.   It turns out that we have had been utilizing this solution for over 47 years on our portable exchangeable tank process.

The next image shows our service manager Troy Phillips pushing our portable exchange tank. For over 43 years ‘at the time we invented the resin screen for the automatic water softener’; our company has always placed a resin screen between the water softener and the home for our portable exchange tanks. We do this to protect your assets.

troy-with-tank

Continuing with the story (Our customer #135970); because the cation resin beads disintegrate over time:

This is an image of cation resin before it is exposed to Chlorine:

 

Cation Resin Before

This image was taken under a microscope by Dr. Gavin (a geology professor from my alma mater Arizona State University)

This is an image of the cation resin after it has been exposed to the chlorine:

Cation Resin After

As the cation resin continues to chlorine disintegrate (it is also called oxidize) it will fracture; as seen in the picture below:

Cation Resin fracture

As this occurs the cation resin fractures (called cation resin fines) will imbed in the openings of the lower collector and can cause low water pressure problems in the home.

This is why it is important to change the cation resin every 5 years (we have established this is the tipping point in Arizona).

Continuing with the story of ( Our customer #135970); our customer now rents an automatic water softener from Boyett’s Family Rayne Water Conditioning.

Q: Why rent a water softener rather than buying?

A: We have established our rental automatic water softener rates to save you over $1,000.00 (over a five year period). Since we utilize principles of recycling and good financial techniques we are able to proffer our clients a very economical rate to rent a water softener. We exchange this cation resin tank and valve every 5 years at no charge.

 

Lower Collector

Our customer (#37515): We received a call from this customer and Troy and Johnny responded for a total of 6 man hours to clean the cation resin out of her house. If another plumbing company had been called – the fee may have been over $1,000.00. Instead, this client was nice enough to give us the opportunity to serve her, we did not charge her and she decided to enroll in our rental soft water program – which includes the resin screen. We promised her this will never happen again.

This next image shows the position of the lower collector.

 

Water Softener

Q: What is the main ingredient of the water softener?

A: It is a material called cation resin.

An ion-exchange resin or ion-exchange polymer[1] is an insoluble matrix (or support structure) normally in the form of small (1–2 mm diameter) beads, usually white or yellowish, fabricated from an organic polymer substrate. The material has a highly developed structure of pores on the surface of which are sites with easily trapped and released ions. The trapping of ions takes place only with simultaneous releasing of other ions; thus the process is called ion-exchange. There are multiple different types of ion-exchange resin which are fabricated to selectively prefer one or several different types of ions. However, most are made of sulphonated cross-linked polystyrene

ion exchange polymer

image017

Ion exchange resin beads

Ion-exchange resins are widely used in different separation, purification, and decontamination processes. The most common examples are water softening and water purification. In many cases ion-exchange resins were introduced in such processes as a more flexible alternative to the use of natural or artificial zeolites. Also, ion exchange resins are highly effective in the biodiesel filtration process.

Most typical ion-exchange resins are based on crosslinkedpolystyrene. The required active groups can be introduced after polymerization, or substituted monomers can be used. For example, the crosslinking is often achieved by adding 0.5-25% of divinylbenzene to styrene at the polymerization process. Non-crosslinked polymers are used only rarely because they are less stable. Crosslinking decreases ion-exchange capacity of the resin and prolongs the time needed to accomplish the ion exchange processes. Particle size also influences the resin parameters; smaller particles have larger outer surface, but cause larger head loss in the column processes.

Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ion-exchange_resin

This is a microscopic image of cation resin (the main cleaning ingredient of the water softener)

 

Cation Resin

Q: What type and quality of cation resin is the best for the Phoenix Arizona area?

A: We utilize this cation resin for our processes:

Polystyrene cross linked with a minimum of 8% Divinylbenzene

C108DQ – Na, WQA/NSF-44 Certified

SOLVENT-FREE (BY STEAM-RINSE) STRONG ACID CATION EXCHANGE RESIN

(Designed for use in water softening applications)

This is the link to the data sheet ‘if you would like specific information on this cation resin’:

 http://gtspc.com/IXChange/ResinDataSheets/C108DQ(Na)_specsheet_080605.pdf

Q: What size of water softener should we chose for our home or business? Another similar question is: what volume of cation resin is required for a single family home?

A: A 64,000 grain water softener is currently the proper size for a single family home (1 to four people).

If the home is over 5,000 square feet; or if there is more than 5 people residing in this home we recommend an 80,000 grain water softener.

The size of the Water softeners is measured in grains (this is the volume characteristic of the cation resin cleaning media)

This is a microscopic image of cation resin (the main cleaning ingredient of the water softener)

Cation Resin

This cation resin material has a certain ability to clean water based upon the influent water characteristics (how hard is the water/ how much sodium is present in the water ‘also measured as TDS – total dissolved solids; and also the water pressure) and water flow.

This cation resin can clean 1 to 5 gallons per minute per cubic foot of this material.   One cubic feet of resin is measured at 32,000 grains.

The next two images are excerpts from an e mail we received (from our cation resin supplier) regarding the gallons per minute cleaning ability ‘of cation resin’ based upon media volume. The next two images substantiate my claim of the maximum flow rate for the cation resin is 5 gallons per minute per cubic feet (32,000 grains) ‘the minimum flow rate for 32,000 grains (1 cubic foot) of cation resin is 1 gallon per minute’.

 

Cleaning ability of cation resin

Cleaning ability of cation resin

10.15.15 8:53 AM

This is an image taken from the bag of resin that we sell.  We receive this cation resin in 1 cubic foot bags.  We utilize this same resin when building our rental water softeners.

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We chose the very best components and ingredients when building our equipment.

The next two images are excerpts from a fax I received regarding the gallons per minute water fill rate for a clothes washer ( For A Typical Water Valve). Based upon our explication (concerns the process of “unfolding” and of “making clear” the meaning of things) of clothes washer water fill valves – we have come to the conclusion that all clothes washers must utilize the same fill valves. Therefore, each residential clothes washer fills at the rate of 5.8 gallons per minute – 6.6 gallon per minute (using one side ‘just hot or cold exclusively). If you are to utilize a mixture of hot and cold – the flow rate will increase to between 6.7 and 7 gallons per minute.

 

Cleaning ability of cation resin

Cleaning ability of cation resin

Please remember, if the water softener begins service with 64,000 grains of capacity – as you utilize this soft water resource; the resin capacity will diminish. Therefore, we maintain that a 64,000 grain water softener is the most appropriate size for all single family home applications. The principle of ‘more is better’ definitely fits this venue. If you have a high capacity volume of resin (regenerated efficiently); your soft water needs will be better met. On commercial applications; the size requirement may be more.

Here is another point of contingency that we would like to interject on this subject:

The value of soft water is very fungible (trade worthy); therefore in our opinion it makes no sense to be cheap or frugal concerning the principle of resin capacity.

Just take a look at this study regarding the efficacy and savings ability with the product of softened water:

http://www.azh2o.com/ebooks?task=weblink.go&id=11

To further explicate and substantiate that in the Phoenix region of Arizona (a 64,000 grain cation resin water softener) is the most appropriate size for a single family home (1 to four people).

If the home is over 5,000 square feet; or if there is more than 5 people residing in this home we recommend an 80,000 grain water softener (with two points and examples):

Please take a look at this water softener diagram:

 

Water Softener

The redish brown material you see in this tank ‘above’ (between the words ‘distributor tube’ and ‘lower collector’) is the material cation resin. When the unit is fully regenerated the water flows in to the top of the resin bed and is used from the top down. The number of gallons; which can be cleaned by this material can be mathematically calculated.

As an example; for a 64,000 grain water softener with effluent water at 18 grains hard (which we consider the average hardness for Arizona) – by dividing 64,000 grains by 18 grains = 3,555.56 gallons can be regenerated (theoretically).

However, the main point is this:

In order to achieve the best performance from the cation resin bed – keeping the maximum amount of cation resin usable is our onus (burden: a duty or responsibility).

Q: Why does it make sense to keep the maximum amount of cation resin usable at all times (affordably)?

A: The principle of surface contact and bed (A mass of ion exchange resin particles or filter media contained in a column) depth (The height of the resin or filter media in the column after it has been properly conditioned for effective operation, usually expressed in inches. This depth excludes any supporting bed). This description characterizes the amount of cation resin contained within the resin tank (bed depth). Our experience indicates that (for residential purposes) – by keeping the maximum bed depth of cation resin regenerated – our clients will receive the best soft water.

Our veteran technician (Tom Sisson ’24 year veteran’) informs me that he receives no problem calls (relating to hard water) on our clients who have 64,000 grain water softener units installed. I’m just saying. Call our office (480) 969-7251 and ask Tom yourself: Tom which size unit do you feel gives our client’s the optimal soft water? He will tell you – “water softeners that are over 64,000 grains”.

On commercial applications: if we do not properly size the water softener (containing the appropriate bed depth) to the water application there may be liability involved. For example:

gal

This diagram shows gallons – per – minute flow delivered by various pipe sizes at various pressures.

If the water application uses a 1.00” pipe; and the water pressure at the facility is 60 pressure (psi) we should utilize a water softener that provides 21 gallons per minute flow rate.

Question: What volume of cation resin will provide 21 gallons per minute cleaning ability (when it is fully regenerated)?

Answer: 4.20 cubic feet of cation resin

Here is the information I utilized to derive this calculation:

email1

According to this e mail excerpt (this is a description of flow characteristics of the cation resin we utilize -from our cation resin supplier). The maximum flow rate for the cation resin is 5 gallons per minute per cubic feet (32,000 grains). Therefore, if we need 21 gallons per minute divided by 5 gallons per minute = 4.2 cubic feet of cation resin is needed.

However, in a commercial application we would want to make sure there are significant reserve capabilities to meet peak water demands and usage. Therefore, We may suggest to utilize 4 additional cubic feet of resin to meet the soft water requirements for this application.

Question: Based upon this above diagram ‘gallons – per – minute flow delivered by various pipe sizes at various pressures’ – what is the appropriate size water softener for a residential home?

Answer: 2 cubic feet (64,000). Explanation (calculation) Most of the water using appliances utilized in our homes are fed by water pipes which are 0.50”. If the water pressure at the home is 60 pressure (psi) the gallons per minute usage requirement ‘based upon the above diagram’ is 7 gallons per minute.

According to this e mail excerpt (this is a description of flow characteristics of the cation resin we utilize -from our cation resin supplier); The maximum flow rate for the cation resin is 5 gallons per minute per cubic feet (32,000 grains). Therefore, if we need 7 gallons per minute divided by 5 gallons per minute = 1.4 cubic feet of cation resin (44,800 grains of cation resin) is needed.

However, we would want to make sure there are significant reserve capabilities to meet peak water demands and usage. Therefore, we suggest to utilize 0.60 additional cubic feet of resin to meet the soft water requirements for all residential applications.

Another consideration; why you should utilize 2 cubic feet (64,000 grains) of resin at your home:

 fax
fax2

The two images above are excerpts from a fax I received regarding the gallons per minute water fill rate for a clothes washer ( For A Typical Water Valve). Based upon our explication of clothes washer water fill valves – we have come to the conclusion that all clothes washers must utilize the same fill valves. Therefore, each residential clothes washer fills at the rate of 5.8 gallons per minute – 6.6 gallon per minute (using one side ‘just hot or cold exclusively). If you are to utilize a mixture of hot and cold – the flow rate will increase to between 6.7 and 7 gallons per minute.

 

Question: Are there any other considerations that justify renting or purchasing a high capacity water softener (64,000 grains) rather than a (40,000 grain to 48,000 grain) water softener?

 

Answer: Yes, the diagram below ‘calculating residential water demand’ indicates that if a home has 3 bathrooms the total water demand is 9 gallons per minute.

Therefore, according to the C108DQ resin flow rate email excerpt above: (this is a description of flow characteristics of the cation resin we utilize -from our cation resin supplier). The maximum flow rate for the cation resin is 5 gallons per minute per cubic feet (32,000 grains). Therefore, if we need 9 gallons per minute divided by 5 gallons per minute = 1.8 cubic feet of cation resin (57,600 grains of cation resin) is needed. We feel that a water softener with a 2.0 cubic foot (64,000 grain) bed depth is adequate and appropriate.

Question: As the water hardness continues to rise – will I need a larger water softener?

Answer: Maybe. In my personal opinion – we will see 80,000 grain (2.5 cubic feet) water softeners being installed within the next 10 years on most residential applications. Who knows, maybe even 100,000 grain units. However, there will have to be some advancements before 100,000 grain units can be installed on residential applications.  The reason I feel this way: based upon my experience with water softeners (I am now 47 years old – I have been involved in my family’s water treatment business all my life); my family installed 32,000 grain water when we began our company 47 years ago. We now recommend 64,000 grain (2 cubic feet) units for all residential applications. As the water hardness continues to increase – so will the size of the units required to meet these soft water demands.

crw

Q: How do you know if the resin is disintegrating?

A: We can perform a cation resin inspection. Here is a document that describes the Field diagnosis of ion exchange resins. This is the protocol in we utilize when diagnosing cation resin.

Field diagnosis of ion exchange resins

 

This is a link to our YouTube video which documents our field diagnosis of cation resin procedure (http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=JecYeNI9_08)

When we perform a cation resin inspection; we extract a sample of cation resin from your water softener and perform a pressure/ stress test on the individual cation resin beads.

These are important excerpts from the article:

“Rubbing the beads between your fingers will tell part of the story – if the beads crumble or break to pieces it is likely in need of replacement.”

“The next thing to look for is resin mushing. The resin sample forms a ball and holds that form when squeezed in your hand to make a ball. This is indicative of resin decrosslinking. Chlorine will decrosslink the DVB crosslinker much like pouring acid on the steel cross members of a bridge. The steel is dissolved away and replaced with air. In resin, the DVB is dissolved out and its physical presences is replaced with water. In other words, the hard beads become little water balloons. This is also evidenced by an increase in the expected pressure drop across the resin bed.”

Q: Is low pressure in the house a sign of cation resin disintegrating (or oxidizing)?

A: Yes. If the cation resin bead is disintegrating or oxidizing it will disturb the flow of water in the water softener.

This is an excerpt from the article above ‘Field diagnosis of ion exchange resin’:

…………“This is also evidenced by an increase in the expected pressure drop across the resin bed. Know what the pressure drop should be and then, using pressure gauges, check the pressure before and after the unit”

Q: What should I do if I get low water pressure in the home?

A: The first thing to do is to bypass the water softener. This will solve the impending low water pressure problem. However, if the cation resin has already begun evacuating into the house; there could be a bigger issue ensuing. If cation resin has begun to flow into your house – this means there has been a malfunction and the distributor or the lower collector may have broken.

image013

I am proud to present these ‘ top 25 asked questions about water softeners’. I found this information at this link:  http://idahowatersolutions.com/water-softener-faqs/

The Top 25 Questions & Answers:

1. How does a Water Softener work? Basically, the resin or mineral inside the mineral tank is specially designed to remove “hard” particles of lime and calcium, by a simple ion exchange process. The resin beads inside the softener tank have a different or opposite electrical charge than the dissolved particles of the incoming water. Because of this electrical charge difference, the dissolved particles suspended in your water will cling to the resin beads on contact, thereby ridding the water of these particles, causing the water exiting the unit to be “soft”. The resin has a limit to how much of these hardness particles it can hold, which is why there are many different sizes of softeners and also why regeneration or brining is required.

2. Will a Water Softener make my water safe to drink? No. Your water must be safe to drink before you condition the water with a softener. If you are concerned about the safety of your drinking water, contact your local health department about getting a bacteria test, or full lab analysis on your water.

3. Why does soft water feel slimy or slick in the shower? The absence of calcium and magnesium prevents film developing on your skin. Your natural oils will secrete and this creates a natural lubrication.

4. When do the resins in the softener tank need to be changed?

In different parts of the country; the replacement frequency will vary. If an area has high chlorine content the replacement will be more frequent. By performing a resin inspection – the need for replacement will be determined.

5. I see ads for “No Salt” needed water conditioners. How do they work without using salt?

There are 2 immediate answers you need to know:

1. Many dealers will advertise a no salt water conditioner in a misleading way. Any brand of water conditioner can be operated without using salt. This is done by using a salt substitute, potassium chloride. It is generally more expensive compared to regular salt (sodium chloride), and can be difficult to find in some areas. Also, it is generally recommended you increase the salt setting on your control valve by about 10%, when using a salt substitute. This is usually not the method being referred to as a ”No Salt” water softener today, but be sure!

2. NEW TECHNOLOGY SALT FREE WATER SOFTENERS are a recent and reliable alternative that make perfect sense in most applications. There are multiple methods (many products & claims are hype & a waste of money) however, the only reliable one is a process called template assisted crystallization (TAC).

TAC is a process in which calcium ions in the water are converted to calcium crystals. These crystals now lose any binding, or scaling ability and are washed down the drain w/ the rest of the water. Any residential, industrial, or commercial setting will benefit substantially with one of these systems.

They stop scale build up in the water system and appliances. These systems also eliminate any salt costs and save a considerable amount of space. Additionally, they do not require a control valve and because of this there is no wasted backwash water, and there is very little maintenance.

We specialize in this new technology.

6. How often do I need to add salt to the Brine Tank?

It depends on how often your system needs to regenerate. The more your softener regenerates the more salt you will consume. As for the salt level in the brine tank, you can let the salt get down to the point inside the tank where you can see the water just above the salt. When you see water above the salt, it is time to add more! Generally, you will add salt to your brine tank about every 8 weeks.

7. How much salt should my softener use?

1. An average softener with 1 cu. ft. of resins (30,000 grain, 10 ” x 44 ” tank) should use about 6-8 lbs. per regeneration to achieve an economical 24,000 grain capacity (hardness in grains divided into grains of capacity results in the gallons of water that can be treated before resins is exhausted).

2. We sell only metered valves, since they tend to use less salt than a non-metered unit (i.e. one set to regenerate every so many days with no regards for actual water used).

3. The national average is 60 lbs. per month, but that can vary depending upon the quantity and the quality of water being treated.

8. What kind of salt do you recommend using and do your softeners also use Potassium Chloride in place of salt?

We recommend buying salt for your water softener that is very clean; around the 99.5% salt content and up. All softeners can use Potassium Chloride in place of salt. Potassium Chloride tends to melt when it gets wet, sometimes forming a “bridge” inside the salt tank, so we recommend filling the Brine tank only halfway or a bit more when using Potassium Chloride, so you can easily monitor it going down inside the tank after the unit regenerates.

9. My valve appears to be operating but the salt is not going down. What could cause this problem?

The salt not going down could be due to many different reasons.

1. Valve is not regenerating due to a mechanical problem.

2. Salt may be bridged (become solid) above water that is at the bottom of the salt tank.

3. If you have been using pellet salt for many years you could have a lot of undissolved residue at the bottom. This residue will not dissolve and also can block water flow in and out of the salt tank.

4. The valve could be failing to draw the brine solution out and if you have a float shut off in the brine tank, it would be prevent the salt tank from overflowing (which it would do if the float shut off was not there).

5. The brine refill control could be clogged, prevent water to refill the salt tank.

(Note: It is highly recommended that you contact an experienced water quality specialist to trouble shoot any problem with your equipment.)

10. I have a working Water Softener, but I am still getting Iron Staining. Why is that?

There are several things that could cause you to still be getting staining.

1. It is critical that your system never run empty of salt.

2. It is important that the time of day be kept correct and that no one uses water between 2 a.m. – 3 a.m. when the system is regenerating. While the system is in regeneration, any water used would be unconditioned (coming straight from the well).

3. It could be your resin tank is too small to handle all the iron.

A. What size is the resin tank?

B. What is the level of Iron and Hardness of the water?

4. It could be you are not regenerating often enough, or using enough salt per regeneration.

A. How often does your softener regenerate?

B. How many people are using the water? C. How much salt are you using per month?

5. It could be that your iron content exceeds the recommended maximum. (1 cu.ft. of resin can effectively remove up to 3 parts per million iron without additional treatment.)

6. On rare occasions the iron could be coming from just the hot water tank. If it is more than 20 years old it could be rusting out on the inside, thus putting iron back into the water. This is also true in older homes, again over 20 years old, that used galvanized plumbing.

Above are the common reasons a working water softener might still be allowing you to get staining. For additional help and recommendations, call or contact an experienced water quality specialist.

11. I have a Water Softener, but I still have odor in my water. Why is that?

Water softeners do not remove most taste and odor problems (although they can remove the metallic taste of iron in water).

1. Odors are typically caused by hydrogen sulfide (“rotten egg smell”) in wells or “bleach” smell in chlorine treated water; both of these causes can be resolved using an activated carbon filter in conjunction with a water softener.

2. The self-sacrificing rod installed in your hot water heater can sometimes be the cause of your odor in the hot water. Having a qualified plumber replace this rod could solve this problem.

12. I have very hard water and high Iron. What kind of softener do I need?

To offer a proper and accurate recommendation for any system (s) needed to correct your water problems, we need current and accurate water test results. Public water suppliers have the information available to you by simply calling them and requesting to know the level of Hardness, Iron and pH of your water. If you have a private well, simply obtain a water test kit from a local hardware store, of you can purchase one of our test kits through a qualified water quality specialist.

13. How Can I find out what is in my water…or where can I have My Water Tested?

If you have public water, simply contact the office where you pay your water bill. They should have current water testing records on file. If you are on a private water system, then contact your county health department to see about having your water tested, or you can buy a Home Water Test kit available from us at this link! Your water test results should show levels of hardness, Iron (what type of Iron you have), pH, Hydrogen Sulfide (for rotten egg odor), Nitrates and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS).

14. How can I determine what kind of unit, and what size I will need?

Filter systems are sized based on a couple of factors: (1) type and amount of dissolved mineral present in your water; (2) your home’s flow rate, which is typically based on the number of people present in the home. For filter systems, this information simply tells us what the fastest rate your water will travel through our units would be, and how much water in gallons per day is being used. Water softeners are sized based on the total hardness of your water, and the number of people in the home. Most all-residential applications have around an average 5 GPM flow rate. Typically, the higher the flow rate of your water going through the unit, the larger the mineral tank will be to handle the larger water flow rate. With a larger tank, the filtering media or resin will be physically deeper thereby permitting the water flowing down through it to be in contact with the media longer. Contact time is important, as the media/resin inside the tank needs to be in contact with your water for a long enough period of time, ensuring all dissolved impurities are removed before it leaves the tank.

15. How can I tell what my flow rate is?

You can get a fairly close idea of your water flow rate by simply running water at full open position through either an outside garden hose faucet or with your bathtub faucet. Example: Turn the faucet on to the full open position… then quickly put the gallon container under the full flow of water. Immediately start timing how many seconds it takes to fill the container all the way up. If it fills the container up in 15 seconds, you simply divide 60 seconds (1 minute)…by 15 seconds (the amount of time it took to fill the container up). The answer is 4, so your flow rate would be very close to 4 GPM! We recommend that you order a unit that would handle at least 4 GPM. It would be over size the unit to ensure you are getting a unit with plenty of GPM flow capacity.

16. What kinds of Iron could be in my water?

There are basically four types of iron found in water, they are:

* Oxidized Iron contains red particles easily visible as the water is drawn from the faucet.

* Soluble or “Clear Water Iron” is very common, and will develop red particles in the water after water is drawn from the faucet, and is exposed to the air for a period of time. The iron particles actually “rust” once they are exposed to air.

* Colloidal Iron consists of extremely small particles of oxidized iron particles suspended in water. This type iron looks more like cloudy, colored water, instead of being able to actually see small red particles of iron. This type iron will not filter well because of the extremely small particle size. (Chlorination may be required).

* Bacterial Iron consists of living organisms found in the water and piping of the well and house. You can tell if you have Bacterial Iron by looking in your toilet flush tank, and finding a reddish/green slime buildup. To confirm this, you should take a sample of this slime to your local health department for testing. This kind of iron is the hardest to get rid of. To completely eliminate this form of bacterial iron requires chlorination of the entire water system, starting with the well casing, well pump, pressure tank and the home plumbing system. (Chlorination may be required).

* Hydrogen Sulfide causes water to have a pungent “rotten egg” odor, and is easily removed using a Manganese Greensand filer.

17. Can the softener cause pressure loss, if so what do I look for, and what do I need to fix it?

Yes, a softener will cause some pressure loss due to the resistance from the resin bed, but excessive pressure loss can be caused by one or a combination of the following.

1. On well water, this is usually due to fine sand coming from the well.

2. On softeners installed in the open sunlight (mostly in Florida), a layer of algae can grow and thick pieces of this growth clog the lower distributor tube screen when they start peeling off the inside of the resin tank.

3. On chlorinated water supplies, sand can get into the tank from new construction or work on water lines in the area. All of these situations are rare.

4. The most common cause of pressure loss occurs on chlorinated water. The resin can be damaged by high chlorine levels and turn to mush. This has the same effect as having fine sand at the bottom of the resin tank.

The solution for all of the above problems is to dump the resin tank, clean and rebed with new resins. One cubic foot of softening resins is enough to properly fill the average residential softener. We can calculate the amount for you, if you provide exact resin tank dimensions.

18. What is a water softener?

A water softener reduces the dissolved calcium, magnesium, and to some degree manganese and ferrous iron ion concentration in hard water.

These “hardness ions” cause three major kinds of undesired effects. Most visibly, metal ions react with soaps and calcium-sensitive detergents, hindering their ability to lather and forming a precipitate—the familiar “bathtub ring”. Presence of “hardness ions” also inhibits the cleaning effect of detergent formulations. Second, calcium and magnesium carbonates tend to precipitate out as hard deposits to the surfaces of pipes and heat exchanger surfaces. This is principally caused by thermal decomposition of bi-carbonate ions but also happens to some extent even in the absence of such ions. The resulting build-up of scale can restrict water flow in pipes. In boilers, the deposits act as an insulation that impairs the flow of heat into water, reducing the heating efficiency and allowing the metal boiler components to overheat. In a pressurized system, this can lead to failure of the boiler.[1] Third, the presence of ions in an electrolyte, in this case, hard water, can also lead to galvanic corrosion, in which one metal will preferentially corrode when in contact with another type of metal, when both are in contact with an electrolyte. However the sodium (or Potassium) ions released during conventional water softening are much more electrolytically active than the Calcium or Magnesium ions that they replace and galvanic corrosion would be expected to be substantially increased by water softening and not decreased. Similarly if any lead plumbing is in use, softened water is likely to be substantially more plumbo-solvent than hard water.

20. Can the softener cause pressure loss, if so what do I look for, and what do I need to fix it?

Yes, a softener will cause some pressure loss due to the resistance from the resin bed, but excessive pressure loss can be caused by one or a combination of the following.

1. On well water, this is usually due to fine sand coming from the well.

2. On softeners installed in the open sunlight (mostly in Florida), a layer of algae can grow and thick pieces of this growth clog the lower distributor tube screen when they start peeling off the inside of the resin tank.

3. On chlorinated water supplies, sand can get into the tank from new construction or work on water lines in the area. All of these situations are rare.

4. The most common cause of pressure loss occurs on chlorinated water. The resin can be damaged by high chlorine levels and turn to mush. This has the same effect as having fine sand at the bottom of the resin tank.

The solution for all of the above problems is to dump the resin tank, clean and rebed with new resins. One cubic foot of softening resins is enough to properly fill the average residential softener. We can calculate the amount for you, if you provide exact resin tank dimensions.

21. What is Hydrogen Sulfide?

Hydrogen sulfide (or hydrogen sulphide) is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. This colorless, toxic and flammable gas is partially responsible for the foul odor of rotten eggs and flatulence.

It often results from the bacterial break down of sulfates in organic matter in the absence of oxygen, such as in swamps and sewers (anaerobic digestion). It also occurs in volcanic gases, natural gas and some well waters. The odor of H2S is commonly misattributed to elemental sulfur, which is in fact odorless. Hydrogen sulfide has numerous names, some of which are archaic.

22. What is hard water?

Hard water is the type of water that has high mineral content (in contrast with soft water). Hard water minerals primarily consist of calcium (Ca2+), and magnesium (Mg2+) metal cations, and sometimes other dissolved compounds such as bicarbonates and sulfates. Calcium usually enters the water as either calcium carbonate (CaCO3), in the form of limestone and chalk, or calcium sulfate (CaSO4), in the form of other mineral deposits. The predominant source of magnesium is dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2). Hard water is generally not harmful.

The simplest way to determine the hardness of water is the lather/froth test: soap or toothpaste, when agitated, lathers easily in soft water but not in hard water. More exact measurements of hardness can be obtained through a wet titration. The total water ‘hardness’ (including both Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions) is read as parts per million or weight/volume (mg/L) of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in the water. Although water hardness usually only measures the total concentrations of calcium and magnesium (the two most prevalent, divalent metal ions), iron, aluminium, and manganese may also be present at elevated levels in some geographical locations.

Hardness

Hardness in water is defined as the presence of multivalent cations. Hardness in water can cause water to form scales and a resistance to soap. It can also be defined as water that doesn’t produce lather with soap solutions, but produces white precipitate (scum).

Example : 2C17H35COONa + Ca2+ → (C17H35COO)2Ca + 2Na+

Types of hard water

In the 1960′s, scientist Chris Gilby discovered that hard water can be categorized by the ions found in the water. A distinction is also made between ‘temporary’ and ‘permanent’ hard water.

Temporary hardness

Temporary hardness is caused by a combination of calcium ions and bicarbonate ions in the water. It can be removed by boiling the water or by the addition of lime (calcium hydroxide). Boiling promotes the formation of carbonate from the bicarbonate and precipitates calcium carbonate out of solution, leaving water that is softer upon cooling.

Upon heating, less CO2 is able to dissolve into the water (see Solubility). Since there is not enough CO2 around, the reaction cannot proceed from left to right, and therefore the CaCO3 will not dissolve as rapidly. Instead, the reaction is forced to the left (i.e. products to reactants) to re-establish equilibrium, and solid CaCO3 is formed. Boiling the water will remove hardness as long as the solid CaCO3 that precipitates out is removed. After cooling, if enough time passes the water will pick up CO2 from the air and the reaction will again proceed from left to right, allowing the CaCO3 to “re-dissolve” into the water.

For more information on the solubility of calcium carbonate in water and how it is affected by atmospheric carbon dioxide.

Permanent hardness

Permanent hardness is hardness (mineral content) that cannot be removed by boiling. It is usually caused by the presence of calcium and magnesium sulfates and/or chlorides in the water, which become more soluble as the temperature rises. Despite the name, permanent hardness can be removed using a water softener or ion exchange column, where the calcium and magnesium ions are exchanged with the sodium ions in the column.

Hard water causes scaling, which is the left over mineral deposits that are formed after the hard water had evaporated. This is also known as limescale. The scale can clog pipes, ruin water heaters, coat the insides of tea and coffee pots, and decrease the life of toilet flushing units.

Similarly, insoluble salt residues that remain in hair after shampooing with hard water tend to leave hair rougher and harder to untangle.

In industrial settings, water hardness must be constantly monitored to avoid costly breakdowns in boilers, cooling towers, and other equipment that comes in contact with water. Hardness is controlled by the addition of chemicals and by large-scale softening with zeolite and ion exchange resins.

23. What is meant by scaling or fouling?

Fouling refers to the accumulation of unwanted material on solid surfaces, most often in an aquatic environment. The fouling material can consists of either living organisms (biofouling) or be a non-living substance (inorganic or organic).

Other terms used in the literature to describe fouling include : deposit formation, encrustation, scaling, scale formation, crudding, and deposition. The last four terms are less inclusive than fouling; therefore, they should be used with caution.

Fouling phenomena are common and diverse, ranging from fouling of ships, natural surfaces in the marine environment (marine fouling), fouling of heat-transferring components through ingredients contained in the cooling water or gases, and even the development of plaque or calculus on teeth, or deposits on solar panels on Mars, among other examples.

This article is mostly devoted to the fouling of industrial heat exchanger systems, although the same theory is generally applicable to other varieties of fouling. In the cooling technology and other technical fields, a distinction is made between macro fouling and micro fouling. Of the two, micro fouling is the one which is usually more difficult to prevent and therefore more important.

Components subject to fouling

The following lists examples of components that may be subject of fouling and the direct effects of fouling:

  • heat exchanger surfaces – reduces thermal efficiency, increases temperature, creates corrosion, increases use of cooling water
  • piping, flow channels – reduces flow, increases pressure drop, increases energy expenditure, may create flow oscillations
  • ship hulls – increases fuel usage, reduces maximum speed
  • turbines – reduces efficiency, increases probability of failure
  • solar panels – decreases the electrical power generated
  • reverse osmosis membranes – reduces efficiency of water purification, increases pressure drop, increases energy expenditure
  • electrical heating elements – increases temperature of the element, increases corrosion, reduces lifespan
  • nuclear fuel in pressurized water reactors – axial offset anomaly
  • injection/spray nozzles (e.g., a nozzle spraying a fuel into a furnace) – incorrect amount injected, malformed jet, component inefficiency, component failure
  • venturi tubes, orifice plates – inaccurate or incorrect measurement of flow rate
  • pitot tubes in airplanes – inaccurate or incorrect indication of airplane speed
  • teeth – promotes tooth disease, decreases aesthetics

Macro fouling

Macro fouling is caused by coarse matter of either biological or inorganic origin, for example industrially produced refuse. Such matter enters into the cooling water circuit through the cooling water pumps from sources like the open sea, rivers or lakes. In closed circuits, like cooling towers, the ingress of macro fouling into the cooling tower basin is possible through open canals or by the wind. Sometimes, parts of the cooling tower internals detach themselves and are carried into the cooling water circuit. Such substances can foul the surfaces of heat exchangers and may cause deterioration of the relevant heat transfer coefficient. They may also create flow blockages, redistribute the flow inside the components, or cause fretting damage.

Examples

  • Manmade refuse
  • Detached internal parts of components
  • Algae
  • Mussels
  • Leaves, parts of plants up to entire trunks

Micro fouling

As to micro fouling, distinctions are made between:

  • Scaling or precipitation fouling, as crystallization of solid salts, oxides and hydroxides from water solutions, for example calcium carbonate or calcium sulfate.
  • Particulate fouling, i.e., accumulation of particles, typically colloidal particles, on a surface
  • Corrosion fouling, i.e., in-situ growth of corrosion deposits, for example magnetite on carbon steel surfaces
  • Chemical reaction fouling, for example decomposition or polymerization of organic matter on heating surfaces
  • Solidification fouling – when components of the flowing fluid with high-melting point freeze onto a subcooled surface
  • Bio fouling, like settlements of bacteria and algae
  • Composite fouling, whereby fouling involves more than one foulant or fouling mechanism.

Precipitation fouling

Temperature dependence of the solubility of calcium sulfate (3 phases) in pure water.

Scaling or precipitation fouling involves crystallization of solid salts, oxides and hydroxides from solutions. These are most often water solutions, but non-aqueous precipitation fouling is also known.

Through changes in temperature, or solvent evaporation or degasification, the concentration of salts may exceed the saturation, leading to a precipitation of salt crystals. Precipitation fouling is a very common problem in boilers and heat exchangers operating with hard water and often results in lime scale.

The calcium carbonate that has formed through this reaction precipitates. Due to the temperature dependence of the reaction, and increasing volatility of CO2 with increasing temperature, the scaling is higher at the hotter outlet of the heat exchanger than at the cooler inlet. In general, the dependence of the salt solubility on temperature or presence of evaporation will often be the driving force for precipitation fouling. The important distinction is between salts with “normal” or “retrograde” dependence of solubility on temperature. The salts with the “normal” solubility increase their solubility with increasing temperature and thus will foul the cooling surfaces. The salts with “inverse” or “retrograde” solubility will foul the heating surfaces. An example dependence of the solubility on temperature is shown in the figure. Calcium sulfate is a common precipitation foulant of heating surfaces due to its retrograde solubility.

Precipitation fouling can also occur in absence of heating or vaporization. For example, calcium sulfate decreases it solubility with decreasing pressure. This can lead to precipitation fouling of reservoirs and wells in oil fields, decreasing their productivity with time.[1] Similarly, precipitation fouling can occur on mixing of incompatible fluid streams.

The following lists some of the industrially most common phases of precipitation fouling deposits observed in practice to form from aqueous solutions:

  • Calcium carbonate (calcite, aragonite usually at t > ~50 °C, or rarely vaterite);
  • Calcium sulfate (anhydrite, hemihydrate, gypsum);
  • Calcium oxalate (e.g., beer stone)
  • Barium sulfate;
  • Magnesium hydroxide (brucite);
  • Silicates (serpentine, acmite, gyrolite, gehlenite, amorphous silica, quartz, cristobalite, pectolite, xonotlite);
  • Aluminium oxide hydroxides (boehmite, gibbsite, diaspore, corundum);
  • Aluminosilicates (analcite, cancrinite, noselite);
  • Copper (metallic copper, cuprite);
  • Phosphates (hydroxyapatite);
  • Magnetite from extremely low-iron water.

Particulate fouling

Fouling by particles suspended in water (“crud”) or in gas progresses by a mechanism different than precipitation fouling. This process is usually most important for colloidal particles, i.e., particles smaller than about 1 μm in at least one dimension (but which are much larger than atomic dimensions). Particles are transported to the surface by a number of mechanisms and there they can attach themselves, e.g., by flocculation or coagulation. Note that the attachment of colloidal particles typically involves electrical forces and thus the particle behavior defies the experience from the macroscopic world. The probability of attachment is sometimes referred to as “sticking probability”, which for colloidal particles is a function of both the surface chemistry and the local thermo hydraulic conditions. Being essentially a surface chemistry phenomenon, this fouling mechanism can be very sensitive to factors that affect colloidal stability, e.g., zeta potential. A maximum fouling rate is usually observed when the fouling particles and the substrate exhibit opposite electrical charge, or near the point of zero charge of either of them. With time, the resulting surface deposit may harden through processes collectively known as “deposit consolidation” or, colloquially, “aging”.

The common particulate fouling deposits formed from aqueous suspensions include :

  • iron oxides and iron oxyhydroxides (magnetite, hematite, lepidocrocite, maghemite, goethite);
  • Sedimentation fouling by silt and other relatively coarse suspended matter.

Corrosion fouling

Corrosion deposits are created in-situ by the corrosion of the substrate. They are distinguished from fouling deposits, which form from material originating ex-situ. Corrosion deposits should not be confused with fouling deposits formed by ex-situ generated corrosion products. Corrosion deposits will normally have composition related to the composition of the substrate. Also, the geometry of the metal-oxide and oxide-fluid interfaces may allow practical distinction between the corrosion and fouling deposits. An example of corrosion fouling can be formation of an iron oxide or oxyhydroxide deposit from corrosion of the carbon steel underneath.

Chemical reaction fouling

Chemical reactions may occur on contact of the chemical species in the process fluid with heat transfer surfaces. In such cases, the metallic surface sometimes acts as a catalyst. For example, corrosion and polymerization occurs in cooling water for the chemical industry which has a minor content of hydrocarbons. Systems in petroleum processing are prone to polymerization of olefins or deposition of heavy fractions (asphaltenes, waxes, etc). High tube wall temperatures may lead to carbonizing of organic matter. Food industry, for example milk processing, also experiences fouling problems by chemical reactions.

Fouling through an ionic reaction with an evolution of an inorganic solid is commonly classified as precipitation fouling (not chemical reaction fouling).

Solidification fouling

Solidification fouling occurs when a component of the flowing fluid “freezes” onto a surface forming a solid fouling deposit. Examples may include solidification of wax (with a high melting point) from a hydrocarbon solution, or of molten ash (carried in a furnace exhaust gas) onto a heat exchanger surface. The surface needs to have a temperature below a certain threshold; therefore, it is said to be subcooled in respect to the solidification point of the foulant.

Bio fouling or biological fouling is the undesirable accumulation of micro-organisms, algae and diatoms, plants, and animals on surfaces, for example ships’ hulls, or piping and reservoirs with untreated water. This can be accompanied by microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC).

Bacteria can form biofilms or slimes. Thus the organisms can aggregate on surfaces using colloidal hydrogels of water and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) (polysaccharides, lipids, nucleic acids, etc). The biofilm structure is usually complex.

Bacterial fouling can occur under either aerobic (with oxygen dissolved in water) or anaerobic (no oxygen) conditions. In practice, aerobic bacteria prefer open systems, when both oxygen and nutrients are constantly delivered, often in warm and sunlit environments. Anaerobic fouling more often occurs in closed systems when sufficient nutrients are present. Examples may include sulfate-reducing bacteria (or sulfur-reducing bacteria), which produce sulfide and often cause corrosion of ferrous metals (and other alloys). Sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (e.g., Acidithiobacillus), on the other hand, can produce sulfuric acid, and can be involved in corrosion of concrete.

Composite fouling

Composite fouling is common. This type of fouling involves more than one foulant or more than one fouling mechanism working simultaneously. The multiple foulants or mechanisms may interact with each other resulting in a synergistic fouling which is not a simple arithmetic sum of the individual components.

24. What is ion exchange?

Ion exchange is an exchange of ions between two electrolytes or between an electrolyte solution and a complex. In most cases the term is used to denote the processes of purification, separation, and decontamination of aqueous and other ion-containing solutions with solid polymeric or mineralic ‘ion exchangers’.

Typical ion exchangers are ion exchange resins (functionalized porous or gel polymer), zeolites, montmorillonite, clay, and soil humus. Ion exchangers are either cation exchangers that exchange positively charged ions (cations) or anion exchangers that exchange negatively charged ions (anions). There are also amphoteric exchangers that are able to exchange both cations and anions simultaneously. However, the simultaneous exchange of cations and anions can be more efficiently performed in mixed beds that contain a mixture of anion and cation exchange resins, or passing the treated solution through several different ion exchange materials.

Ion exchangers can be unselective or have binding preferences for certain ions or classes of ions, depending on their chemical structure. This can be dependent on the size of the ions, their charge, or their structure. Typical examples of ions that can bind to ion exchangers are:

• H+ (proton) and OH− (hydroxide)

• Single charged monoatomic ions like Na+, K+, or Cl−

• Double charged monoatomic ions like Ca2+ or Mg2+

• Polyatomic inorganic ions like SO42− or PO43−

• Organic bases, usually molecules containing the amino functional group -NR2H+

• Organic acids, often molecules containing -COO− (carboxylic acid) functional groups

• Biomolecules which can be ionized: amino acids, peptides, proteins, etc.

Ion exchange is a reversible process and the ion exchanger can be regenerated or loaded with desirable ions by washing with an excess of these ions.

Applications

Ion exchange is widely used in the food & beverage, hydrometallurgical, metals finishing, chemical & petrochemical, pharmaceutical, sugar & sweeteners, ground & potable water, nuclear, softening & industrial water, semiconductor, power, and a host of other industries.

Most typical example of application is preparation of high purity water for power engineering, electronic and nuclear industries; i.e. polymeric or mineralic insoluble ion exchangers are widely used for water softening, water purification, water decontamination, etc.

Ion exchange is a method widely used in household (laundry detergents and water filters) to produce soft water. This is accomplished by exchanging calcium Ca2+ and magnesium Mg2+ cations against Na+ or H+ cations (see water softening).

Industrial and analytical ion exchange chromatography is another area to be mentioned. Ion exchange chromatography is a chromatographical method that is widely used for chemical analysis and separation of ions. For example, in biochemistry it is widely used to separate charged molecules such as proteins. An important area of the application is extraction and purification of biologically produced substances such as amino acids and proteins.

Ion-exchange processes are used to separate and purify metals, including separating uranium from plutonium and other actinides, including thorium, and lanthanum,neodymium, ytterbium, samarium, lutetium, from each other and the other lanthanides. There are two series of rare earth metals, the lanthanides and the actinides, both of which families all have very similar chemical and physical properties. Ion-exchange is the only practical way to separate them in large quantities.

A very important case is the PUREX process (plutonium-uranium extraction process) which is used to separate the plutonium and the uranium from the spent fuel products from a nuclear reactor, and to be able to dispose of the waste products. Then, the plutonium and uranium are available for making nuclear-energy materials, such as new reactor fuel and nuclear weapons.

The ion-exchange process is also used to separate other sets of very similar chemical elements, such as zirconium and hafnium, which incidentally is also very important for the nuclear industry. Zirconium is practically transparent to free neutrons, used in building reactors, but hafnium is a very strong absorber of neutrons, used in reactor control rods.

Ion exchangers are used in nuclear reprocessing and the treatment of radioactive waste.

Ion exchange resins in the form of thin membranes are used in chloralkali process, fuel cells and vanadium redox batteries.

Others

In soil science, cation exchange capacity is the ion exchange capacity of soil for positively charged ions. Soils can be considered as natural weak cation exchangers.

In planar waveguide manufacturing ion exchange is used to create the guiding layer with higher index of refraction.

25. What is a Backwashing Filter?

A backwashing filter is a tank with a specific filtration media filled inside, additional components for structure, and a control valve. The media is typically specific to the elements or components that need to be filtered from the water, such as but not limited to; Arsenic, Nitrates, Iron, Manganese, Chemicals, and Sediments. The water enters the tank, and the elements or components are stopped by the filtration media. The water then travels downwards and travels up through a stem at the bottom of the tank entering the household. During the backwash cleaning cycle, the control valve adjusts the pressure and water flow in the reverse direction, thereby purging the collected elements into a designated drain.

Some other questions and answers concerning soft water equipment:

Q: Is your water softener set properly?

A: the settings on the valve needs to be set appropriately to your incoming water hardness and according to the cation resin capacity of the water softener. We will be happy to help you identify and analyze these characteristics over the phone.

Q: Is the water hardness increasing in the Phoenix Arizona metropolitan area?

A: Yes, as the population increases so is our dependence on the CAP (Central Arizona Project) canal. This CAP water is harder and because of the high algae content; the cities add more chlorine in the water to kill this algae and keep this water free from microbiological contamination. This next illustration shows that our usage of local surface water is decreasing and our usage of CAP is increasing.

water sources

Source: Phoenix Magazine; in an article titled Trading Water; Development in Arizona is on the rebound. Who’s going to keep the water flowing? And at what cost? By Tom Marcinko

Q: What percentage of water resources does the CAP (Central Arizona Project) canal provide to the Phoenix metropolitan area?

A: 39% and growing. As illustrated in the diagram below:

warter 2

 

Source: Phoenix Magazine; in an article titled Trading Water; Development in Arizona is on the rebound. Who’s going to keep the water flowing? And at what cost? By Tom Marcinko

gal

 

crw

Source: the above two diagrams: ‘gallons – per – minute flow delivered by various pipe sizes at various pressures’ and ‘calculating residential water demand’ ( I found this information in my father’s file (William Brian Boyett ‘during his career he achieved the certification of CWS-V through the WQA.ORG’) titled Kinetico. He utilized this information when competing against the company known as Kinetico because their resin quantities are much smaller than ours and their units have a lower flow rate. For a single family home, or a business – both of these flaws can be a detriment when providing water treatment to an establishment.

This document was written and prepared by

Brian Hayden Boyett BS, CWS VI, CI

General Manager, Boyett’s Family Rayne Water Conditioning

Office: (480) 969-7251

Cell:     (602) 291-4157

 hayden@azh2o.com

 http://www.azh2o.com

The origination date of this document is: 04.02.13

Sources

(+) http://www.aquascience.net/glossary.cfm